The goal of the program. Development of the means for near-Earth and deep space observations. Development of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system to monitor the situation in the NES and beyond, identify and predict situations that pose a threat to the operation of spacecraft.

Problems that the program aims to solve. The program is mainly aimed at solving the problems of NES safe usage, orbital objects near-miss events (primarily, for Kazakhstani satellites), asteroid hazard, space weather monitoring, and tracking of space debris fragments.

The main approaches to the research. In the implementation of the program, a systematic approach will be applied aimed at solving the tasks necessary to achieve the goal of the Program, namely:
1) a wide-angle optical system with the field of view of 3.8°×2.5° will be developed for monitoring and survey observations of the NES;
2) for spectral observations of extremely weak objects exhibiting fast spectral variability, a prototype spectrograph based on volume phase holographic gratings (VPHG) equipped with a CCD-camera with signal amplification (EMCCD) will be created;
3) the spectrograph will be used at the 1.5-m telescope of the Assy-Turgen Observatory (FAI) for follow-up observations and studies of deep and near-Earth space objects;
4) for the development of Kazakhstani segment of space weather monitoring and forecasting, a prototype system of alert signaling about dangerous radiation in spacecraft orbits will be developed;
5) a digital environment will be developed to provide centralized and coordinated control and interaction of all devices included in the space situational awareness system.

Expected results:
1) methods and technologies for the monitoring of near-Earth space objects;
2) new data from optical observations of space objects with active energy release, obtained using the upgraded optical facility;
3) VPHG-based spectrograph and methodology for its effective application; 4) hardware and software tools for near- and deep-space exploration: high-performance computing, Big Data, computer simulations, CUDA technology;
5) methods of diagnostics and forecasting of space weather;
6) dissemination of results and publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals in accordance with the requirements of the competition documentation.
As a result, we will have a system for space situational awareness, which will contribute to the maintenance and growth of competencies in researching and monitoring the situation in the NES and beyond.

1. Scientific conference «Многоликая Вселенная: теория и наблюдения – 2022», SAO RAS, Nizniy Arkhyz, Russia, 23-27 may 2022 (on-line), Saule Shomshekova Спектральные и фотометрические исследования сейфертовской галактики Mrk 1095 (ARK 120)

Specialists training:
1. Daiana Kadyrova . Final project (in russian): Analysis of the orbital motion of space debris in geostationary orbits . Defense date: 16.06.2022. Bachelor of Science in Physics and Astronomy. al-Farabi Kazakh National University. Scientific Supervisor: Rashit Valiullin, co-supervisor: Chingiz Akniyazov
2. Ruslan Spassyuk. Final project (in Russian): Ray Tracing in a Spectrograph for Astronomical Observations of Fesenkov Astrophysical Institute . Defense date: 20.06.2023. Bachelor of Science in Nuclear physics. al-Farabi Kazakh National University. Scientific Supervisor: Aimuratov Erlan